Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Yeast Rapid Growth

Question: Discuss about theYeast for Rapid Growth. Answer: Introduction These organisms are important for the production of flavor and fragrance compounds since they can be derived from a wide range of compounds. Some features which make it ideal for its use in flavor production is its ability to grow under high temperatures and that they have a rapid growth. However, this organism has not been used extensively for commercial purposes because there is no clear genetics and physiological knowledge (Morrissey et al., 2015). Moreover, the information on Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast has not been patented. It is common in the naturally fermented dairy products. This report indicates that it is co-culturing of Kluyveromyces marxianus with bacteria which leads to the development of flavors. These flavor compounds are produced by the modifying enzymes in the central processes. Examples of these flavors includes 2, 2- butanediol, 2- phenyl ethanol, ethyl decanoate and other esters. The Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast is very important because it can be used for the production ethanol on small scale and large scale processes. The features that make this yeast to be ideal for the production of ethanol include its ability to consume several carbohydrates, thermo tolerance, high growth rate and secretion of lytic enzymes (Galindo-Leva et al., 2016). Moreover, Kluyveromyces marxianus has the ability to produce inulin a great carbohydrate storage, which can, in turn, be used, fermented directly into alcohol. The Kluyveromyces marxianusfragilis BO399 is the first yeast outside the Kluyveromyces family which was approved as a probiotic for the human consumption. This yeast contains eight chromosomes, a mitochondrial DNA and in total, the genome size is 11.44 MB. It belongs to the naturally occurring species in cheese and kefir. It is the first species outside the Saccharomyces yeasts which was approved for the use in humans as well as human feeds (Quarella et al., 2016). The assembly of the Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis BO399 has about 109 scaffolds with a GC content of about 40%. This yeast has a maximum length of 1.3 mb and its N50 length contains approximately 743,117 bases. Since the use of yeast as human probiotics, research on the benefits of the lactic acid Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis BO399 in the immune responses. Several aspects investigate for the immune responses include: adhesion and immune modulation and metabolic response upon the administration of Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis BO399 (107) per day (Maccaferri et al., 2012). Therefore it was found that this strain adheres to the human enterocyte Caco 2 cells leading to an immunological response. It induces proinflammatory cytokines especially in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis BO399 causes a decrease in the cytotoxic abilities in the culture supernatant of the colon model system. It also impacts the colonic microbiota which in turn increases the bifid bacterial amounts of in the various stages of in the colon. These and other facts indicates that Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis BO399 has beneficial advantages and strain specific features whi ch are required for microorganisms to be used as a probiotic. Having been approved proved for use as a probiotic, it is important the relationship between the Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis and the zootechnical field usage. The aspect of resistance of Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis to the antibiotics could be as a result of the cellular organization which exists between the procariotic and eukaryotic organisms. The antibiotic activity of Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis acts in the ribosomes, topoisomerase II, RNA polymerase, procariotic cells such as the peptidoglycan wall (Vaughan, 2002). Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis can help in the transfer of DNA containing the genes for resistance from one procariotic cell to another hence transfer of the antibiotic resistance traits. Probiotic foods are the foods which contain the probiotic ingredients so that after their digestion, a number of ingredients which is delivered to the body are more than the amount which can be supplied by other nutrients (Costabile and Maccaferri, 2014). Examples of probiotic foods include the dairy products like yogurt and cheese. Due to the increased demand of probiotics, their use in foods has been adopted very much. This is because there are believes that the probiotics help in the cure of some disorders such as the intestinal disorders. The Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis is thus employed in the manufacture of probiotic foods such as the probiotic yogurt. This yeast ferments with the enzyme beta galactosidase and produces lactic acid, which is important in most metabolic reactions (Backovic et al., 2015). Being resistant to antibiotics, Kluyveromyces yogurt fragilis is able to block the negative effects of antibiotics in a competitive colonization of the gut. Research states t hat to maintain the probiotic function of the probiotic dairy products like yogurt, the daily uptake needs to be more than ten million live cells. Moreover, the taste, color, and odor of the probiotic yoghurt can be preserved for a period of up to one month. References List Backovic, A., Popovic-Vranjes, A., Kasalica, A., Lopicic-Vasic, T. and Grubjesic, G., 2015. The Use of the Yeast Kluyveromyces Fragilis B0399 in the Production of Probiotic Yogurt. Costabile, A. and Maccaferri, S., 2014. Application of Probiotics in the Dairy Industry: The Long Way from Traditional to Novel Functional Foods. Dairy Microbiology: A Practical Approach, p.155. Galindo-Leva, L.., Hughes, S.R., Lpez-Nez, J.C., Jarodsky, J.M., Erickson, A., Lindquist, M.R., Cox, E.J., Bischoff, K.M., Hoecker, E.C., Liu, S. and Qureshi, N., 2016. Growth, ethanol production, and inulinase activity on various inulin substrates by mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus. Journal of industrial microbiology biotechnology, 43(7), pp.927-939. Maccaferri, S., Klinder, A., Brigidi, P., Cavina, P. and Costabile, A., 2012. Potential probiotic Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 modulates the immune response in Caco-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and impacts the human gut microbiota in an in vitro colonic model system. Applied and environmental microbiology, 78(4), pp.956-964. Morrissey, J.P., Etschmann, M.M., Schrader, J. and Billerbeck, G.M., 2015. Cell factory applications of the yeast Kluyveromycesmarxianus for the biotechnological production of natural flavour and fragrance molecules.Yeast,32(1), pp.3-16. Quarella, S., Lovrovich, P., Scalabrin, S., Campedelli, I., Backovic, A., Gatto, V., Cattonaro, F., Turello, A., Torriani, S. and Felis, G.E., 2016. Draft genome sequence of the probiotic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus fragilis B0399. Genome Announcements, 4(5), pp.e00923-16. Vaughan, A., 2002. Trial# 84: Resistance to antibiotics of the feed supplement TURVAL B0399-probiotic with typified lactic yeast Kluyveomyces marxianus fragilisB0399 (University of Studies of Perugia Italy, Department of Biology and Agrodietary Biotechnologies). Retrieved on July https://www. turval. com/research/humans_and_nutrition/trial-84-resistance-to-antibiotics-ofthe-feed-supplement-turval-b0399-probiotic-with-typified-lactic-yeast-kluyveomycesmarxianus-fragilisb03999.

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